Remember that an accented é is sounded, but an unaccented e is mute.
Unless they are followed by a vowel, or belong to the group that Michel Thomas calls the CaReFuL consonants, these are not normally pronounced at the end of French words. If they belong to the CaReFuL group, they are sometimes - but not always - pronounced, so words need to be learnt individually.
These two sounds can have many different spellings, but there are a few general rules. The imperfect endings, for instance, have the è sound. Words ending with an unaccented e followed by a consonant (parler, nez) tend to have the short sound - except when the final consonant is t, when the sound is long. There are so many exceptions, however (including regional variations) , that it is wise to check new words in a dictionary or listen to a native speaker's pronunciation.
This is one that people seem to find difficult - especially radio and TV presenters (How many 'millefouilles' or 'grenwee' have we heard? But the rule is simple: pronounce the vowel or vowel digraph before the ending, and add a consonantal 'y' (as in yachtI). The link above takes you to a Quizlet flashcard page to check the pronunciation. There is also a link to an activity page.
The nasal sounds obey rules, but some of them have a range of spelling possibilities which need to be mastered. This exercise requires you to think about the spelling possibilities in order to find rhymes.
Many French words have different spellings but identical pronunciation. Once spelling rules are mastered, it should be possible to decipher new words even if you don't understand them.
Match pairs of words with rhyming final syllables.
Don't expect place names to conform to the rules in French any more then they do in English! You just need to learn them as you come across them.